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    PCB Material Selection Guide

    Ingxenye ebaluleke kakhulu electronics iyona ephrintiwe wesifunda ibhodi (PCB). Alternately, esithi kuye futhi zaba wiring amabhodi kunyatheliswe futhi bakha imizila edingekayo yokwenza amakhadi ezinyathelisiwe, okuyinto empeleni into efanayo. Ngenxa indima ebalulekile kulezi amabhodi e yonke into kusukela kuma-computer kuya yokubala, ukukhethwa ebhodini impahla PCB kufanele kwenziwe ngokuqikelela nolwazi izidingo kagesi ucezu kunikezwa imishini.

    Ngaphambi kokuba lezi zindawo le PCB, izinto wesifunda ibhodi iningi imbozwe izidleke babanjwa, izintambo ezedlulayo ezingase kalula behluleka ngezikhathi ezithile ezithile. Babekwazi nokusho short circuit kanye yobudala wabamba futhi izintambo athile asusa ukwambula. Njengoba kungalindeleka, inqubo manual ukuthi wangena wiring yalezi amabhodi zokuqala kwakukhona edidayo wasakha ngokucophelela okukhulu.

    Njengoba i ezihlukahlukene okwandisa izingxenye kwansuku electronic waqala ancike wesifunda amabhodi, uhlanga elapha ukuthuthukisa elula, izindlela emfishane, futhi lokhu kwaholela ekwakhekeni indaba, PCB. Nge PCB izinto, izifunda iyahanjiswa phakathi zaziziningi izingxenye ezahlukene. I metal ukuthi kusiza ukudluliselwa wamanje phakathi kwebhodi futhi iyiphi izingxenye elinamathiselwe njengoba solder, nakho kufeza injongo ethile ezimbili nge nezimfanelo zayo ingcina ezaziwayo.

    PCB Material Ukwakheka

    Ukwakheka kwe-PCB ngokuvamile siqukethe izingqimba ezine, okuyinto ukushisa laminated ndawonye iwenze isendlalelo esisodwa. Indaba esetshenziswa PCB kuhlanganisa izingqimba alandelayo kusuka phezulu wehle:

    • Silkscreen

    • Soldermask

    • yethusi

    • substrate

    Owokugcina labo izingqimba, substrate, wenziwe fiberglass futhi yaziwa nangokuthi FR4, ne izinhlamvu FR imile "umlilo cishe yizona ezisetshenziswa kabanzi. "Lesi sendlalelo substrate inikeza isisekelo esiqinile PCB, nakuba ukushuba ziyahlukahluka ngokuvumelana ukusetshenziswa bepulangwe inikezwe.

    Ububanzi eshibhile amabhodi futhi khona emakethe ukuthi musa ukusebenzisa okufanayo eziphawulwe ngenhla okunzima PCB izinto, kodwa kunalokho aqukethe phenolics noma epoxies. Ngenxa ukuzwela ezishisayo yalezi amabhodi, bona mazizo yokuvikela ngocwazi wabo kalula. ngokuvamile Lezi amabhodi eshibhile kulula ukubona by nephunga anika uma kokuba soldered.

    Isendlalelo se-PCB yesibili liyithusi, okuyinto laminated ungene substrate nenye ukushisa kanye anamathelayo. Isendlalelo zethusi inamakhasi ambalwa, futhi kwezinye amabhodi kukhona izingqimba ezimbili ezifana - eyodwa ngenhla futhi eyodwa ngezansi substrate. PCB ne kuphela isendlalelo esisodwa zethusi bathambekele usetshenziselwe electronics eshibhile.

    I bakamalalahlengezela asetshenziswe zethusi laminate egqoke (CCL) kungenziwa oluthathwa ngezigaba ezahlukene ngezindinganiso ezahlukene ngezigaba kuhlanganise yokugcizelela impahla, wasebenzisa resin ingcina, flammability, CCL ukusebenza. Ukwahlukaniswa emfushane CCL iboniswa Ithebula elilandelayo 1.

    39621488871468

    Ngenhla soldermask oluhlaza ungqimba silkscreen, okusenza izinhlamvu izinkomba zezinombolo ukuthi wenze PCB esifundekayo ukuze tech program. Lokhu, kwenza kube lula electronics assemblers ukubeka PCB ngamunye endaweni efanele futhi endaweni efanele ku ingxenye ngayinye. Isendlalelo silkscreen ngokuvamile mhlophe, nakuba imibala ezifana obomvu, ophuzi, gray kanye black nazo ngezinye izikhathi asetshenziswa.

    Layer PCB Imigomo Technical

    Kanye kuvisisa indlela PCB kuyinto egqinsiwe, kubalulekile ukwazi nemigomo elandelayo lobuchwepheshe obuhambisana ukusetshenziswa PCB:

    • annular indandatho. I ring lethusi izungeza izimbobo kwi PCB.

    • DRC. Emelela design umthetho isheke. Ngokuyisisekelo, DRC kuwumkhuba lapho umklamo PCB iyenziwa ukuze isebenze yayo. Yekuchumana ukuthi bahlolwe zihlanganisa ububanzi iminonjana futhi izimbobo sokuprakthiza.

    • Drill hit. Elisetshenziswa ukuchaza zonke izimbobo kwi PCB, kungakhathaliseki ilungile noma ukuzikhohlisa. Kwezinye izimo, kuye kwavuleka imbobo enkulu kungase kube kancane ayilungile ngenxa zibuthuntu imishini imishini esetshenziswa ngesikhathi ukukhiqizwa.

    • Umunwe. Metal wadalula kanye emaphethelweni ebhodini elinikeza yokuxhuma amaphuzu phakathi PCB ezimbili. Iminwe zivame kakhulu otholakala kwi ubudala isiqophi imidlalo khadi.

    • Mouse izingcezu. Ingxenye ebhodini okuye ngokweqile yamba ukuze afinyelele eqophelweni lapho lisongela ubuqotho kwesakhiwo se PCB.

    • Pad. Endaweni metal obuchaywe PCB, ungene ngalo ucezu soldered ngokuvamile sisetshenziswa.

    • Panel. Ibhodi elikhulu wesifunda ehlanganisa amabhodi ezincane, okuyinto ekugcineni ahlukaniswe ukusetshenziswa ngabanye. Isizathu salokhu umkhuba ukushabalalisa nobunzima ukuthi bokudla ukuzwa uma kuziwa endabeni yokusebenzelana nabantu amabhodi ezincane.

    • Namathisela i-stencil. A-stencil metal ebhodini, ungene ngalo nokunamathisela ibekwe ngoba nokunamathisela ngomthofu.

    • Plane. SiGaba emikhulu zethusi obuchaywe PCB, okuyinto ephawuleka imingcele kodwa ongenawo endleleni.

    • Plated ngokusebenzisa imbobo. Imbobo ukuthi uya ngqo ngokusebenzisa PCB, ngokuvamile ngenjongo yokuxhuma enye ingxenye. Umgodi is kuhlinzwa futhi ngokuvamile izici i ring annular.

    • Slot. Noma yimuphi imbobo ukuthi akuyona isiyingi. PCB ne Slots zivame okusezingeni eliphezulu ontengo yakhe yayinqunyiwe ngenxa izindleko zokukhiqiza yokudala izimbobo lingalingani emise ebhodini wesifunda. Slots ngokujwayelekile hhayi kuhlinzwa.

    • Surface ukukhweza. Indlela lapho izingxenye zangaphandle zixhunywe ngqo ibhodi ngaphandle kokusebenzisa ngokusebenzisa izimbobo.

    • Trace. Kuvele umugqa okuqhubekayo zethusi uhlangabezana PCB.

    • V-score. Indawo lapho ibhodi iye kancane ukusika. Lokhu kungaba ahumusha PCB sengozini ngokuthwebula.

    • Via. Imbobo ngokusebenzisa okubonisa travel phakathi izingqimba. -VIAS zisabonakala izinguqulo Tented futhi untented. izinguqulo Tented embozwe soldermask zokuzivikela, kuyilapho i-VIAS untented asetshenziselwa nezinamathiselo isixhumi.

    Inombolo lena ekulandulayo ungqimba libhekisela inani eliqondile izingqimba kokuqhuba, kungaba umzila noma ibhanoyi ungqimba - izinhlobo ezimbili ungqimba. Izinhla bavame ukuba inombolo 1, noma yimiphi letinombolo ezine ngisho: 2, 4, 6, ngezinye izikhathi 8. Layer amabhodi babe izinombolo lingalingani, kodwa lawa ezingavamile futhi wayengaba neze yimuphi umehluko. Ngokwesibonelo, impahla PCB in a 5 ungqimba noma 6 ungqimba ibhodi kungaba cishe ezifanayo.

    Izinhlobo ezimbili ungqimba zinemisebenzi eyahlukene zibuye. izingqimba yomgudu isici amathrekhi. Plane izingqimba ukukhonza njengoba amandla nezixhumi kanye nezindiza ezinemishini yokuthwebula ephambili sici zethusi. Plane izingqimba futhi isici iziqhingi ukucacisa injongo mkhosi bepulangwe, kungaba 3.3 V noma 5 V

    FR4 igama ikhodi ingilazi-kwagcizelela epoxy laminated amashidi. Ngenxa yamandla ayo, kanye nekhono layo ukumelana umswakama kanye umlilo, FR4 ingenye ethandwa kakhulu PCB izinto.

    Engeziwe PCB Design yezakhi

    Isibalo ezifana 1.6 mm isetshenziswa ukhombise ukushuba ibhodi ungqimba. On 4 ungqimba amabhodi, 1.6 mm iyona isilinganiso ejwayelekile. Ubukhulu yinto ukubukela lapho ekhetha amabhodi idivayisi. Amabhodi kanye ukushuba enkulu, isibonelo, ngeke anikele ukusekelwa okuthe xaxa uma izinto ezisindayo yokuxhuma kumele asekelwe.

    Izinga ejwayelekile zethusi ukujiya kundiza izingqimba kuyinto 35 microns. Alternately, ithusi ukujiya ngezinye izikhathi kukhonjisiwe awunsi noma amagremu. Kungcono ukuya ephakeme kunaleyo ukujiya zethusi evamile ngamapulangwe ukuthi ukusekela eziningi izicelo.

    Amaculo azihloselwe uthumele amandla, kodwa lokhu ngesinye isikhathi kwenzeke lapho amasignali musa kahle ukuphatha amaza. Uma le nkinga inga- silawulwe, amathrekhi angagcina kokulahlekelwa amanani ezinkulu kwamandla. Ukuze uthole amandla ngangokunokwenzeka wathutha esuka kolunye uhlangothi ithrekhi kuya komunye, layout ithrekhi kumelwe alandise ukudluliswa zibalo.

    Ngokuvamile, ama-intshi amabili ilungelo ithrekhi ibanga kusendlalelo amabhodi aqukethe zethusi-zilandelwa FR4 PCB impahla, ukuhlinzeka ukuthi isikhathi isignali ingenye nanosecond. Nokho, kumelwe futhi bacabangele imiphumela komugqa yokudlulisela ukuze ithrekhi okusezingeni eliphezulu ubude, ikakhulukazi uma isignali ubuqotho kubalulekile. I-inthanethi igcwele izinhlelo nama-spreadsheet ukuthi zenzelwe ukusiza abantu ukwenza efanele impedance izibalo kusendlalelo amabhodi ethize.

    On amabhodi kakhulu, i-VIAS akunalutho, futhi ungakwazi ngokuvamile ubone ilungelo ngabo. Noma kunjalo, kunezimo ahlukahlukene-VIAS singavalwa ngaphansi kwazo. Okokuqala, kuyadingeka ukuze i-VIAS igcwaliswe uma kuziwa endabeni yokwakha izithiyo oluyisivikelo uthuli nezinye amanyela. Okwesibili, i-VIAS engase zigcwaliswe zokuthuthukisa umthamo esithwele we wamanje, kuleso simo beqhuba izinto kungasetjentiswa. Esinye isizathu ukuthi i-VIAS engase zigcwaliswe iwukuba level ibhodi.

    -VIAS zivamise egcwele ibhola igridi afanayo (BGA) izingcezu. Uma oxhumana naye kwenzeka phakathi iphini BGA futhi isendlalelo kwangaphakathi, solder ungase iphambana nge futhi ungene ungqimba ezahlukene. Ngakho-ke, i-VIAS agcwaliswa ukuqinisekisa solder singenalo angena komunye ungqimba, futhi ubuqotho oxhumana ayagcinwa njengoba kuhlosiwe.

    Omunye izenzeko enzima ngaphezulu phezu kwepulangwe ungqimba kulapho amakhefu contact bephuma ngokuthanda esithile kanye ebhodini. Lapho lokhu kwenzeka, i-ngokushesha kuleyo ngxenye ibhodi kufanele uma ebanjwa akhokhe unikeze abanye ngokuphelele. Isilinganiso ikhaya electronics umsebenzisi bayothola le nkinga uma omunye izinkinobho wokubala uyayeka ukusebenza. inkinobho ngamunye ngazo phansi ingxenye ethile ibhodi ungqimba, futhi lapho endaweni eyodwa uthola okuyiphutha, le nkinobho correlates kuleyo ndawo Awukwazi ukuthumela isignali yayo.

    Enye indlela oxhumana kungenziwa wagcoba phandle izindawo ezithile kulapho slot ikhadi lesibili ubekwa umbadlana. Uma ikhadi ayiqondakali iphathwe, omunye izindawo kanye ikhadi ungase uthole alimele behluleka ukusebenza ukusuka lapho phuma. Indlela engcono kakhulu ukuvikela evele of ebhodini ukuthi baxhumane ngomunye nomunye nokusetshenziswa ungqimba igolide, esebenza njengesikhali isithiyo ekuphileni-ngcono. Igolide kuyabiza, Nokho, kanye nokusebenzisa kwayo e amathebhu unezela esinye isinyathelo in the inqubo PCB bumbela.

    PCB Soldermask

    Umbala ukuthi abantu abaningi bajwayelene uma kuziwa motherboards oluhlaza, umbala soldermask. Nakuba engeke njengoba ezivamile, soldermask futhi ngezinye izikhathi obonakala ezithombeni eminye imibala, ezifana obomvu noma oluhlaza. Soldermask nayo aziwa LPISM emelela, esimelela ketshezi isithombe imageable soldermask. Injongo soldermask ukuvimbela ukuvuza solder ketshezi. Eminyakeni yamuva, tehlakalo lokhu ziye zanda ngenxa yokuntuleka soldermask. Nokho, ngu yamanye ama-akhawunti, abasebenzisi ngokuvamile uthanda amabhodi eziye soldermask phezu amabhodi ukuthi bengayi.

    Uma soldermask ifakiwe ku PCB, the PCB is phansi solder esibunjiweyo. Njengoba le nqubo kwenzeka, evele obala zethusi babe solderized. Konke lokhu kuyingxenye yenqubo eyaziwa ngokuthi hot air solder yokululama (HASL). Njengoba chips SMD kuthiwa soldered, ibhodi ukufuthelana kuze kube seqophelweni lokuba solder kuthatha kwifomu oncibilikisiwe kanye izingxenye zifakwa zisendaweni yazo. Njengoba uDries solder, yezingxenye futhi babe soldered. HASL ngokuvamile kuhlanganisa abaholayo njengabafundisi omunye compounds ku solder, nakuba ongakhetha nomthofu-free futhi akhona.

    Sisezikhaleni ithrekhi ububanzi Kubonisani dash. Ngokwesibonelo, uma ubona lesi sibalo 6/6 mils, ukuthi ngabe ucacise mils 6 njengoba ubuncane ithrekhi ububanzi, kanye ubuncane ithrekhi Isikhala. Ngakho-ke, zonke spacings ebhodini okukhulunywa kufanele noma ihlangabezane noma idlule 6 mils. Kulabo ezingajwayelekile, mils amayunithi zisetshenziswa ukunquma amabanga ku PCB izinto. Ububanzi, ashiye tikhala kubaluleke kakhulu uma kuziwa amabhodi ukuthi zenzelwe ukusingatha izimali eliphezulu lamanje.

    Lapho ibhodi PCB is multilayered, amathrekhi ahlukahlukene ayikwazi wahlola zibukeke ukuze lungeneke yabo. Ngakho-ke, ukuhlolwa wenziwa ukuthi ubeka iphenya ekupheleni amathrekhi ukuqinisekisa yonke amasignali kukhona ofinyelelekayo. Ukuhlolwa Kwenziwa zokusebenza volts kusukela komunye umkhawulo. Uma lezi voltages kuthiwa Uqaphelile ngaphesheya, amathrekhi zithathwa ngokuthi zisesimweni ukusebenza. Nakuba isivivinyo akuyona njalo kubalulekile ngamapulangwe elinento eyodwa noma izingqimba ezimbili, ukuthi namanje Kunconywa uma unendaba ngempela izinga.

    -VIAS ukuthi ukuxhuma izingqimba kwangaphakathi futhi yangaphandle zaziwa ngokuthi i-VIAS abayizimpumputhe. Igama Imiphumela kusukela lokuthi ngoba i-VIAS ezinjalo kungenziwa kuphela ikhombe esuka kolunye uhlangothi. -VIAS ukuthi ukuxhuma izingqimba ezimbili noma ngaphezulu kwangaphakathi zaziwa ngokuthi i-VIAS wangcwatshwa, esingenakubalwa ikhombe kusukela ngaphandle kunoma iluphi uhlangothi. On amabhodi aqukethe i-VIAS izimpumputhe futhi wangcwatshwa, nge ukugcwaliswa livame ukusetshenziswa. Lokhu kugcina ebusweni ngaphandle lilondeke kakhudlwana, futhi kusiza aphansi kungenzeka solder ilele ngokusebenzisa futhi ekujuleni-VIAS kwangaphakathi.

    Okukhethiwe Material ethinta Izindleko

    PCB ngokuvamile okubiza kakhulu uma iqukethe izici ezifana igolide amathebhu, i-VIAS izimpumputhe noma zigqitshwe, noma nge ukugcwaliswa. Ngokufanayo, PCB ne umugqa / Isikhala ububanzi ngezansi 6 mils futhi ivame ukuba abiza ngaphezulu. Isizathu sokuba lezi amanani ephakeme iyona enye inqubo ukuthi angene ukukhiqizwa PCB amabhodi engavamile. Ngokufanayo, PCB imikhiqizo ethile abe hhayi cishe inzuzo noma yimpumelelo uma mils ongaphakeme noma i-VIAS kwangaphakathi ezifakwa, futhi intengo ephakeme isethelwe recoup ukulahlekelwa. Fabricators khona ukuthi PCB umkhiqizo ngomugqa / izilinganiso ububanzi njengoba low 3 mils, kodwa lokhu ngokuvamile abanconywa ngaphandle uma inketho yakho kuphela ingxenye ethile.

    Amandla kanye Heat Impact ku PCB Material Ukukhethwa

    Kuzo zonke izici ukuthi PCB umthelela, ezimbili obunamandla kakhulu kukhona amandla ukushisa. Ngakho-ke, kubalulekile ukucacisa imibundu ngayinye, okuyinto kungenziwa ngekuhlola conductivity ezishisayo we PCB. Lokhu ichaza indlela amandla wattage baguqulelwa lokushisa ngokusebenzisa ubude impahla. Nokho, azikho esungulwe umkhakha-wide amanani wanoma conductivity ezishisayo.

    Ngokwesibonelo, Rogers Corp. athwala impahla PCB, RT / duroid 5880, ukuthi ngokuvamile isicelo EW kanye nezokuxhumana. I njalo Kwe-dielectric Heating kwale nto liphansi, njengoba kungcono impahla esiyinhlanganisela iqukethe micro-fibrous ingilazi izakhi. Lezi microfibers sizifeze andisa amandla fibre asendabeni.

     

    Ngenxa yalesi njalo ongaphakeme Kwe-dielectric Heating, le PCB ilungele izicelo ukuthi ukusebenzisa imisindo eliphezulu. Nokho, ngenxa ongaphakeme conductivity okokusebenza sika ezishisayo, it kalula nokushisa, okungaba ethile omkhulu zokusebenza ukushisa kakhulu.

    PCB Izinto Nezimboni Izicelo

    Ukuthola izinhlelo zokusebenza emasotjeni aerospace, imoto nezinto yezokwelapha izimboni, PCB ekhiqizwa in izinhlobo olulodwa kanye kabili emaceleni, ezinye zazo ziyizilimi zethusi abagqoke nabanye asebenzisa aluminium. Esimweni ngasinye kulezi izimboni, indaba isetshenziselwa ukusebenza esiphezulu ezindaweni ezithize. Ngenxa yalokho, PCB izinto akhethiwe izinga yabo engasindi ezitshalwayo ezimbonini ezithile noma ikhono labo lokuphatha izimali eliphezulu amandla abanye. Ngenxa yalokho, lapho ukusebenza kwazo ziyabhekelelwa, kubalulekile kutfola kutsi nguyiphi imisebenti kufanele kuqhathaniswa omunye nomunye uma kukhethwa PCB izinto, kusukela amazinga impahla correlate emazingeni ukusebenza.

    Flex futhi Ngesandla Esiqinile-Flex Amabhodi

    Eminyakeni yamuva, amabhodi flex futhi kube lukhuni-flex ziye zathola udumo ngenxa ongakhetha bona uvumele ezihlukahlukene ukusetshenziswa. Ngokuyinhloko, ingagoba, eligoqiwe ngisho laqina izinto, ngakho ingasetshenziswa ukuphumelelisa izicelo ukuthi belingeke libe khona ithemba nombonisi amabhodi flat. Ngokwesibonelo, ibhodi flex kungasetjentiswa ucezu imishini ukuthi kuzodinga ibhodi phinda engela kanye zisathwala zamanje kusukela komunye umkhawulo kuya komunye ngaphandle kwesidingo yokuxhuma panel.

    Iningi amabhodi flex emakethe aqukethe Kapton, ifilimu polyimide ukuthi wasungulwa lo DuPont Corporation. Le filimu inama izimfanelo ezifana ukushisa ukumelana, ukungaguquguquki ntathu kanye njalo Kwe-dielectric Heating ka 3.6 kuphela.

    Kapton iza Pyralux izinguqulo ezintathu:

    • Flame cishe yizona ezisetshenziswa (FR)

    • Non-ilangabi cishe yizona ezisetshenziswa (NFR)

    • / ukusebenza high Yesigcilikisha-kancane (AP)

    Ukukhetha PCB IBhodi Materials - Quality Okokuqala

    Uma kuziwa ekukhetheni PCB izinto ebhodini, izinga kubaluleke kakhulu ekwakhiweni yiluphi uhlobo ebhodini, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi senzelwe ikhaya electronics noma imishini industrial. Ingxenye equkethe isiliphu wesifunda ibhodi kungaba ezinkulu noma ezincane, ezishibhile noma ezibizayo, kodwa okubaluleke kakhulu wukuthi entweni yombuzo inikeza Yizinga eliphakeme isikhathi egcwele yempilo yayo kulindeleke.

    Nakuba kunezinhlobo eziningana PCB izinto angene ibhodi unikezwa, umkhiqizo nokwethenjelwa ekugcineni lokho abathengi kanye namabhizinisi ufuna emikhiqizweni ezisebenzisa wesifunda amabhodi. Yiqiniso, kungcono futhi kubalulekile ukuthi izinto PCB ibhodi uqine ngokwanele ukubamba ndawonye, ​​ngisho noma ingxenye ngephutha Ufika kwehla nobe wangqongqoza emaceleni.

    On imishini esebenza nge-computer, isibonelo, PCB eliqinile le ukuqinisekisa izibuyekezo hardware zingenziwa ngaphandle ukwenza umonakalo nga pre-existing izinto PCB ebhodini. Kuyefana nasendleleni electronics, ama-microwave namanye amadivayisi yasendlini ancike PCB ubuchwepheshe ukuhlala isimo ukusebenza. Ngisho ezikhungweni electronic zomphakathi ezifana ATM, PCB kumelwe asebenze nakanjani ngakho izinkinobho izosebenza nemiyalo kuyothathwa kuqondwe ngaphandle kokulibala.

    Ngezinye PCB Omangalisayo, sinikeza uhla egcwele PCB Izimpahla kanye namasevisi inhlangano. Ngenxa yethu iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-20 'ibhizinisi isipiliyoni kanye ubuchwepheshe ezintsha, PCB Wonderful kuyinto ukusisingatha ezahlukene laminate zokwakha kanye substrate izinto kuhlanganise FR4, Rogers njll ukuthi kukhona ethandwa kakhulu futhi isicelo kabanzi. Izinsiza zethu ziye zasetshenziswa yi-onjiniyela kuzo zonke izingxenye zezimboni, nezinhloso esiyingqayizivele uma kuziwa ukusebenza kanye nokusebenza izingxenye ezisebenzisa PCB. Ukuze ufunde kabanzi mayelana amasevisi ethu, vakashela inhlangano yethu Uhlolojikelele namakhasi amakhono noma uxhumane nathi ukuze uthole i lesisho osheshayo namuhla.

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