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    PCB Material Selection Guide

    Eyona ndawo ibalulekileyo elektroniki yeyona ibhodi yesekethe eziprintiweyo (PCB). Yanjalo, le ungayiqondiyo iye ibalwe iibhodi nokufakelwa eshicilelweyo kunye namakhadi nokufakelwa eziprintiweyo, eyinxalenye into efanayo. Ngenxa indima ebaluleke ezi iibhodi kuyo yonke into ukusuka kwiikhompyutha ukuya zokubala, PCB ukhetho izinto ibhodi kufuneka kwenziwa ngenkathalo kunye nolwazi eziyimfuneko lombane iqhekeza elinikiweyo kwezixhobo.

    Phambi kuphuhliso PCB, izixhobo ibhodi neyesiphaluka becala kuhlawulwa yi iindlwane ze bofanelana bephinyelene, amacingo sifana kakhulu ukuba lula ziyahluleka ezithile ezithile. Kwakhona short circuit kanye ubudala wambamba kunye iingcingo ezithile baqalisa ukuzivula. Njengoko kunokulindeleka, inkqubo manual ukuba waya iintambo ezi iibhodi okuqala, kwaye zingumsebenzi onzima.

    Njengoko ukukhula ezahlukahlukeneyo components ngemihla elektroniki baqalisa bathembele kwiibhodi wesiphaluka, ugqatso wayelapha ukuphuhlisa iindlela ezilula, compact ngakumbi, kwaye oku kukhokelele kuphuhliso umbandela, PCB. Ngezinto PCB, iziphaluka iyahanjiswa phakathi umkhosi amacandelo ahlukeneyo. Le sisinyithi lula ukudluliselwa olukhoyo phakathi kwebhodi kunye naziphi na izakhi eziqhotyoshelweyo kwaziwa solder, nayo leyo kufeza injongo mbini kunye neempawu zayo enamathelayo.

    PCB Material Ukubunjwa

    Ukubunjwa a PCB ngokubanzi Wenziwe ziimaleko ezine, ezo ubushushu ngaplastiki ndawonye umaleko ube mnye. Le izinto ezisetyenziswa PCB ibandakanya ezi zoleko zilandelayo ukusuka phezulu ukuya ezantsi;

    • Silkscreen

    • Soldermask

    • ibhrasi

    • zeendawana

    Esi sokugqibela zoleko, zeendawana, yenziwe fiberglass kwaye eyaziwa ngokuba FR4, kunye FR oonobumba emele "nekudodobalisa umlilo. "Lo maleko zeendawana lisisiseko esiqinileyo PCBs, nangona Ebubanzini nga kwahluka ngemisebenzi ibhodi elinikiweyo.

    Uluhlu ingabizi kakhulu iibhodi nazo khona kwimarike musa asebenzise izinto ezifanayo PCB ngasentla, kodwa endaweni luqulathe phenolics okanye epoxies. Ngenxa uvakalelo wobushushu ezi iibhodi, bakholisa ukuba baphelelwe lamination yazo lula. Ezi iibhodi zitshiphu badla lula ukubona yi ivumba ukuba zikhupha xa soldered.

    Umaleko sesibini PCB lubhedu, nto leyo ngaplastiki kwi zeendawana kunye nomxube ubushushu ngcina. Umaleko copper ibhityile, kwaye kwezinye iibhodi kukho ezimbini loo maleko - elinye ngentla enye ezantsi zeendawana. PCBs kuphela umaleko ube mnye sobhedu bakholisa ukuba kusetyenziswa izixhobo zombane zitshiphu.

    I zisetyenziswa kakhulu-copper laminate ezilala (CCL) kungenziwa ihlelwa ngokwezintlu ezahlukeneyo ngokuvisisana nemilinganiselo ezahlukeneyo yokuhlela kuquka izinto ukomeleza kusetyenziswa resin ngcina, LINGATSHA, ukusebenza CCL. Ulwahlulo olufutshane CCL kuboniswe kwiTheyibhile elilandelayo 1.

    39621488871468

    Ngentla soldermask eluhlaza yi umaleko silkscreen, okusenza iileta kunye nezalathisi lwamanani Abayili PCB ezinokufundwa badwelisi benkqubo obuchwepheshe. Oku, kwenza kube lula ukuba elektroniki nabadibanisi ukubeka PCB nganye kwindawo efanelekileyo kwicala lasekunene kwi kwicandelo ngalinye. Umaleko silkscreen idla emhlophe, nangona imibala ezifana ebomvu, emthubi, engwevu kunye abamnyama zikwasetyenziswa ngamanye amaxesha.

    Layer PCB Imigomo Technical

    Kunye ukuqonda indlela PCB na sekhombuya, loo nto ke kubalulekile ukuba ukwazi amagama yobugcisa ilandelayo ihamba ukusetyenziswa PCBs:

    • ring thunzi. Iringi lobhedu ojikeleze mingxuma kwi PCB.

    • DRC. Ungayiqondiyo zedizayini rule ngetsheki. Ngokusisiseko, DRC Sisenzo apho ukuyilwa PCB iyakhangelwa kusebenziso. Iinkcukacha zitshekishwa ziquka ububanzi imizila kunye ngokumba imingxuma.

    • ukuzama hit. Isetyenziswa ukuchaza yonke imingxuma kwi PCB, nokuba ezichanekileyo okanye engafanelekanga. Kwezinye iimeko, umngxuma kunokuba engachanekanga kancinane ngenxa yokuba izixhobo edakumbile sokugrumba ngexesha kwimveliso.

    • Finger. Metal obala ezigudle ibhodi esebenza kokuxhuma iingongoma phakathi PCBs ezimbini. Iminwe amaninzi afumaneka kwi imidlalo yokuzonwabisa endala kunye memory card.

    • Mouse ziintanda. A candelo ibhodi eye kakhulu eweva ukuya kwindawo apho kusongela isidima noshowo a PCB.

    • Pad. Indawo metal bako phezu PCB, kuma apho isiqwenga soldered lisetyenziswa jikelele.

    • Panel. A ibhodi wesekethe omkhulu eziquka iibhodi ezincinane, ezo ekugqibeleni ezahlulwe ukusetyenziswa ngamnye. Isizathu sokuba lo mkhwa ukuphelisa ubunzima ukuba abaphatha nayo xa kuziwa ekujonganeni iibhodi ezincinane.

    • Cola istensile. A istensile metal ebhodini, nekufakwe kuzo paste ibekwe ukuze ngelotha.

    • Plane. Icandelo enkulu zekopolo ezingaphandle phezu PCB, elona nani ngokwemida kodwa luswele indlela.

    • ngumfanekiswana nge emngxunyeni. Umgodi esihamba ngqo ngokusebenzisa PCB, ngokuqhelekileyo ngenjongo yokudibanisa kwelinye icandelwana. Umngxuma into engathi ngumfanekiswana kwaye ngokuqhelekileyo features i ring thunzi.

    • slot. Nawuphi na umngxuma oko setyhula. PCBs kunye kwiindawo zokubeka basoloko phezulu ngexabiso ngenxa iindleko zemveliso wokudala imingxuma ezimilise odd-kwibhodi wesiphaluka. Slots bakutshelwe hayi ngumfanekiswana.

    • Umphezulu zanda. A indlela apho amacandelo lwangaphandle ziyaxhonywa ngqo kwibhodi ngaphandle kokusebenzisa ngokusebenzisa imingxunya.

    • Landzelela. An umgca okuqhubekayo ngobhedu enqumla PCB.

    • V-score. Indawo apho ibhodi kancane kunqunyulwa. Oku kwenza i PCB basesichengeni undingqavulayo.

    • Nge. A imbobo apho uqhubukusha ukuhamba phakathi maleko. Vias zibonwa kwiinguqulelo Tented kunye untented. iinguqulelo Tented zizele soldermask ezikhuselayo, ngoxa vias untented zisetyenziselwa attachments isinxibelelanisi.

    Inani olwandulela umaleko ibhekisa kwinani ngqo zokuqhuba umaleko, enoba yomgudu okanye moya layer - iindidi ezimbini umaleko. Ingaphandle bakholisa ukuba inombolo 1, okanye naliphi na inani elilandelayo amane: 2, 4, 6, 8. iibhodi Layer ngamanye amaxesha kufuneka amanani lingenangqiqo, kodwa ke ezi azixhaphakanga kwaye enze ngenkankulu nawuphi na umahluko. Ngokomzekelo, izinto PCB ku 5 inwebu okanye 6 ibhodi layer bekuya kuba twatse.

    Iintlobo ezimbini inwebu abe imisebenzi eyahlukeneyo. maleko zomzila ukufaka tracks. layers Plane bakhonza izihlanganisi amandla kwaye iinqwelo-moya feature ubhedu. layers Plane kwakhona ziyavela iziqithi ezibonakalisa kweesiginali injongo ibhodi, nokuba 3.3 V okanye 5 V.

    FR4 igama ikhowudi ye glass-ngakumbi epoxy elaminethiweyo sheets. Ngenxa yamandla ayo, kwakunye namandla alo ukumelana ukufuma nomlilo, FR4 yenye yezinto ezininzi ethandwa PCB.

    Kubonelela PCB Design ezongezelelweyo

    A nani ezifana 1.6 mm osetyenziswa ukubonisa Ebubanzini ibhodi umaleko. Kwiibhodi umaleko 4, 1.6 mm Nomlinganiso eqhelekileyo. Ukutyeba into ukubukela xa ekhetha iiplanga icebo. Iiplanga ubukhulu enkulu, umzekelo, uya kunika inkxaso ngakumbi xa enzima izinto kokuxhuma kufuneka axhaswe.

    Inqanaba standard olulingana yobhedu ngongqameko moya microns 35. Yanjalo, ubukhulu ubhedu wambi kubonisiwe ounces okanye grams. Ngokuba kuhle ukuba baye ngaphezulu ubukhulu ubhedu oqhelekileyo kwiibhodi ezixhasa ezininzi izicelo.

    Iimpawu nto ithetha ukuba ukudlulisela igunya, kodwa oku maxa wambi kwenzeka xa ikhala musani ukuphatha kakuhle ezitsho. Ukuba le ngxaki ayilungiseki silawulwe, kumkhondo ugqibele sele ukulahlekelwa izixa enkulu ngamandla. Ukuze ufumane amandla kangangoko kunokwenzeka yasuswa ukusuka kwelinye icala ingoma omnye, ubeko lwe nengoma kufuneka akhawunti ngenxa kwizibalo zothumelo.

    Ngokubanzi, intshi ezimbini umkhondo kumgama ekunene kwiibhodi umaleko ezinama copper ekhawuleziswayo izinto PCB FR4, ngokubonelela ukuba ixesha Oluphawu nanosecond mnye. Noko ke, uze uthathe ingqalelo imiphumo komgca ukudluliselwa ukulungiselela ubude lweengoma eziphakamileyo, ingakumbi xa ingqibelelo uphawu ibalulekile. I-Internet izele iinkqubo kunye spreadsheets ukuba zenzelwe ukunceda abantu benze izibalo ukuvimba elifanelekileyo iibhodi umaleko ethile.

    Kwiibhodi ezininzi, vias baninzi abaphetheyo, kwaye ngokuqhelekileyo ubone okulungileyo ngabo. Kunjalo, kukho iimeko ezahlukeneyo vias unokuhluthiswa phantsi kwayo. Kuba Okokuqala, ukuba kuyimfuneko ukuba vias ukuba uzaliswe xa kuziwa ngokwakha imiqobo zokuzikhusela ukusuka eluthulini kunye nezinye ukungcola. Okwesibini, vias nizala kunyuswe kwisikhundla a ngoku, apho ukuze zisetyenziswe kwityala oqhuba izinto. Esinye isizathu sokuba vias ukuze ndizaliswe kukuba level ibhodi.

    Vias zizaliswa ngokuqhelekileyo nge uluhlu ibhola igridi (BGA) ziingceba. Ukuba contact kwenzeka phakathi isikhonkwane BGA kunye umaleko engaphakathi, solder ehamba nge nge kwaye kwi umaleko eyahlukileyo. Ngoko ke, lo vias zigcwala ukuqinisekisa solder akuthethi avuze komnye umaleko, kwaye ingqibelelo abafowunelwa zigcinwa njengoko senzelwe.

    Enye izenzeko anzima ngakumbi kwibhodi umaleko kuxa breaks zoqhagamshelwano ephuma kwenyeindawo ecaleni ebhodini. Okukhona oku kuyenzeka, phuthuma ukuba inxalenye ibhodi usecicini unikeze ngokupheleleyo. Umsebenzisi zikagesi ikhaya avareji uza kufumana le ngxaki xa omnye bamaqhosha ikhalityhuleyitha ngaba luyayeka ukusebenza. iqhosha ngalinye uyayicinizela phantsi inxalenye ethile ibhodi ezikroziswayo, kwaye xa elinye ibala ufumana eziphosakeleyo, iqhosha ukuba correlates kuloo ndawo akakwazi ukuthumela uphawu wayo.

    Enye indlela abafowunelwa nga kancici ngaphandle amabala ezithile kuxa ikhadi likavimba lesibini ubekwa motherboard. Ukuba ikhadi kakubi ngayo, omnye amabala ecaleni ikhadi akwazi ukufumana onakeleyo asilele ukusebenza ukusuka apho phandle. Eyona ndlela ibhetele yokuzikhusela imiphezulu ebhodi yabalawuli eso sifike omnye nomnye kanye nokusetyenziswa umaleko yegolide, nto leyo esebenza njengomqobo ubomi ngcono. Gold kuyabiza, kunjalo, kunye nokusetyenziswa kwayo tabs, yongeza elinye inyathelo laloo nkqubo PCB kungamampunge.

    PCB Soldermask

    Umbala abantu abaninzi baqhelene xa kuziwa motherboards oluhlaza, umbala soldermask. Nangona phantse ngendlela eqhelekileyo, soldermask nazo ngamanye amaxesha livela kwezinye imibala, ezifana ebomvu okanye oluhlaza. Soldermask kwakhona waziwa LPISM ungayiqondiyo, nto leyo emele ulwelo photo imageable soldermask. Injongo soldermask kukuthintela ukuvuza solder engamanzi. Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, nezehlo le ziye zanda ngenxa yokungabikho soldermask. Noko ke, ziingxelo ezininzi, abasebenzisi bakhetha ngokuqhelekileyo iibhodi eziye soldermask phezu iibhodi musa.

    Xa soldermask sele isicelo PCB, i-PCB ufakwa solder otyhidiweyo. Njengokuba le nkqubo lwenzeka, Imiphezulu ubuze zobhedu zibe solderized. Oku konke yinxalenye yenkqubo eyaziwa ngokuba umoya solder eshushu sokulinganisa (HASL). Njengoko engenelela SMD ukuba soldered, ibhodi itshiswe ukuya kwinqanaba apho solder kuthatha kwifom etyhidiweyo kwaye amacandelo zifakwa kwindawo yazo efanelekileyo. Njengoko liyalila solder, amacandelo babe soldered. HASL ngokuqhelekileyo kuquka bakhokela njengoko omnye khompawundi kwi solder, nakuba zikhona iindlela abakhokelayo-free.

    Le izithuba lwegama kobubanzi luboniswa dash. Ngokomzekelo, xa ubona inani 6/6 mils, ukuba ukhankanye mils 6 njengoko ubuncinane ububanzi umkhondo, kwakunye ubuncinane umkhondo izithuba. Ngoko ke, zonke spacings ebhodini kuthethwa kufuneka mhlawumbi ukuhlangabezana okanye ukudlula mils 6. Kwabo ezingaqhelekanga, mils iiyunithi zisetyenziswa ukugqiba imigama kwimathiriyeli PCB. Ububanzi kunye izithuba kubaluleke ngakumbi xa kufikwa iibhodi ukuba enzelwe ukusingatha izixa eliphezulu ngoku.

    Xa ibhodi PCB into multilayered, ingoma ezahlukahlukeneyo ezingazi kuviwa abangaboniyo ukuze ukufikeleleka kwabo. Ngoko ke, uvavanyo olwenziwa ebeka ixhokonxa ekupheleni lengoma ukungqinisisa yonke zesandla onokulufikelela. Uvavanyo lwenziwa izicelo ze volts ukusuka kwelinye icala. Ukuba le yombane ukuba waqonda ukusuka kwelinye icala, imizila zithathwa ukuba zikwimeko yuokusebenza. Nangona uvavanyo alusoloko kubalulekile kwiibhodi omnye okanye ngeengcamba ezimbini kuphela, kodwa nangoku kucetyiswa ukuba Wazazi umgangatho ngokwenene.

    Vias adibanayo maleko yangaphakathi langaphandle zaziwa ngokuba vias eyimfama. Igama le Iziphumo kukuba ngenxa yokuba vias ezinjalo mawa kuphela ukusuka kwelinye icala. Vias adibanayo maleko ezimbini okanye ngaphezulu yangaphakathi baziwa ngokuba vias kungcwatywa, zibe nezingerhwexu ukusuka ngaphandle ngapha nangapha. Kwiibhodi equlathe vias abaziimfama kungcwatywa, nge ukuzaliswa isoloko isetyenziswa. Oku kugcina ubuso ngaphandle enqabisekile yaye inceda asezantsi ithuba solder n'ekiweebwayo ngokusebenzisa yaye luchukumisa le vias embilwini.

    Okukhethiweyo ezibonakalayo ichaphazela Iindleko

    PCB ngokuqhelekileyo kubiza ngakumbi xa iqulethe iimpawu ezifana tabs zegolide, vias abangaboniyo okanye kungcwatywa, okanye nge ukugcwaliswa. Ngokufanayo, PCB kunye izithuba zemigca / ububanzi ngezantsi mils 6 nayo udla malini ngaphezulu. Isizathu sokuba kwezi amaxabiso aphezulu yinkqubo enye paha ukuvelisa iibhodi PCB ezingaqhelekanga. Ngokufanayo, kweemveliso ezithile PCB sele benawo ukuba kufumaniseke ukuba phantse njengokuba inzuzo okanye yimpumelelo xa mils eliphantsi okanye vias yangaphakathi ziboniswe, kwaye ixabiso eliphezulu isetelwe ukuba kubuyiswe ilahleko. Fabricators zikhona ukuba imveliso PCB enesi / imilinganiselo ububanzi phantsi mils-3, kodwa ke oku Ngokubanzi kuyacetyiswa ngaphandle kokuba oko ukhetho lwakho kuphela ukuze enze icandelo elithile.

    Amandla Ubushushu Ifuthe PCB Material Selection

    Kuzo zonke izinto PCBs ifuthe, ezimbini ezona kakhulu amandla kunye nobushushu. Ngoko ke, kubalulekile ukujonga beminyango nganye, nto leyo kungenziwa yokuhlola conductivity wobushushu ye PCB. Oku uchaza amandla ombane icinyiwe njani lobushushu ngokusebenzisa ubude eziphathekayo. Nangona kunjalo, akukho amaxabiso esekwe kushishino ngokubanzi-ngenxa conductivity thermal.

    Umzekelo, Rogers Corp. sihambisana izinto PCB, RT / duroid 5880, oko kudla tirhisiwaka EW noqhagamshelwano. Abehla Heating kwale nto iphantsi, njengoko va izinto edityanisiweyo equlathe izinto iglasi micro-ezinezikhondo. Ezi microfibers bakhonze injongo ekukhuliseni amandla nefayibha mbandela.

     

    Ngenxa kule ukusoloko Heating ephantsi, i-PCB ezilungele izicelo ukuba zisebenzise ezitsho eziphakamileyo. Nangona kunjalo, ngenxa conductivity thermal phantsi lwezixhobo, kulula bubushushu, nto leyo inokuba ethile enkulu kwizicelo ubushushu-olunzulu.

    PCB Iimathiriyeli Industry Izicelo

    Kuba izicelo emkhosini kunye aerospace, imoto kunye zonyango namashishini, PCBs zakhiwa single kwakunye iintlobo kabini-kabini, ezinye zazo evathe yobhedu kunye nabanye ukuba sebenzisa i-alumuniyam. Kwimeko nganye kwezi mveliso, izinto sisetyenziselwa yokusebenza ubuninzi kwiindawo ezithile. Ngenxa yoko, izinto PCB zikhethiwe umgangatho wabo ayisindi kumashishini ezithile okanye ikhono labo lokuphatha imali aphezulu bamandla kwabanye. Ngenxa yoko, xa iziphiwo yokusebenza zithathelwa ingqalelo, kuba kubalulekile ukumisela ukuba ngowuphi imisebenzi kufuneka luthelekiswe omnye nomnye xa kukhethwa izinto PCB, ekubeni amanqanaba eziphathekayo masihambelane ukuya kumanqanaba yokusebenza.

    Flex kunye ziqinile-yokuveza IiBhodi

    Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, iibhodi flex kunye ngqongqo-flex ziye zakhula ukuthandwa ngenxa iinketho ivumela kuba ezahlukeneyo zosetyenziso. Ngokusisiseko, baye ungagotywa, isongwe kwaye nkqu zijijele izinto, ngoko ke ingasetyenziswa ukuphumeza izicelo ukuba andinakuze kunokwenzeka ngeeplanga beesekethe flat. Umzekelo, ibhodi flex ukuze isetyenziswe ngenxa yeqhosha izixhobo kufuna ibhodi phinda kwi-engile kwaye baphathe yangoku ukusuka kwelinye icala ukuya kwelinye ngaphandle imfuneko kokuxhuma panels.

    Uninzi neebhodi flex ezivenkileni kuquka Kapton, ifilim polyimide ukuba wasungulwa yi-Dupont Corporation. Lo mboniso bhanya-inama iimpawu ezifana ukunganyangeki ubushushu, guquki ntathu kunye rhoqo Heating ka-3.6 kuphela.

    Kapton iza kwiinguqulelo ezintathu Pyralux:

    • idangatye nekudodobalisa (FR)

    • Non-nelangatye nekudodobalisa (NFR)

    • Bukanqinishe-ngaphantsi yokusebenza eliphezulu / (AP)

    Ukukhetha PCB Board Materials - Umgangatho Wokuqala

    Xa kufikwa ukukhetha izixhobo kwibhodi PCB, umgangatho kubaluleke kakhulu ekwakheni nawuphi na uhlobo ibhodi, nokuba loo nto ilungiselelwe zikagesi ekhaya okanye izixhobo mveliso. Icandelo equlathe ibhodi yesekethe eprintiweyo angaba ezikhulu okanye ezincinane, ziyafikeleleka okanye zibiza kakhulu, kodwa ke eyona nto ibalulekileyo kukuba le nto kuthethwa ngayo inika yokusebenza ebalaseleyo ixesha elipheleleyo bayo nobomi bayo kulindeleke.

    Nangona kukho iintlobo ezininzi izinto PCB ukuba baye ibhodi elinikiweyo, ukuthembeka imveliso ekugqibeleni oko kwabathengi kunye namashishini bafuna kwiimveliso ezisebenzisa iibhodi beesekethe. Kakade ke, loo nto kwakhona kubalulekile ukuba izinto ibhodi PCB ukuba yomelele, ukuba iphathe kunye, kwanokuba icandelo ngengozi ithi lehla okanye bekhathazekile ecaleni.

    On izixhobo ngekhompyutha, umzekelo, PCBs eziluqilima ukuqinisekisa uhlaziyo iintsimbi ingenziwa ngaphandle kokwenza umonakalo izinto kwibhodi PCB pre-ekhoyo. Kukwasebenza kwanjalo kuyo izixhobo zombane, iimayikhroweyivi kunye nezinye izixhobo khaya bathembele ubuchwepheshe PCB ukuba ahlale zikwimeko yuokusebenza. Nokuba ezikwindawo zikawonke-elektroniki ezifana-ATM, PCBs kufuneka asebenze nakanjani ukuze amaqhosha aya kusebenza kunye imiyalelo ziya kuqondwa ngaphandle kokulibazisa.

    Xa PCB nguMmangaliso, sinikezela uluhlu olupheleleyo izinto PCB kunye neenkonzo nebandla. Ngenxa amava kushishino kwiminyaka engaphezu kwama-20 kunye nobuchwephesha ezintsha, PCB Wonderful ikwazi ukuzenzela izinto laminate ezahlukeneyo kunye nezinto zeendawana kuquka FR4, Rogers njalo ukuba ithandwa kakhulu kwaye isicelo ngokubanzi. iinkonzo zethu ziye asetyenziswa iinjineli kumacandelo mveliso, kunye neenjongo ezizodwa xa kufikwa ukusebenza kunye nokusebenza izixhobo ezisebenzisa PCB. Ukuze ufunde okungakumbi malunga neenkonzo zethu, tyelela isishwankathelo yethu indibano nezakhono amaphepha okanye uqhagamshelane nathi ukuba quote nangoko namhlanje.

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